By Roger Gabriel (auth.)
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Additional resources for A Patient’s Guide to Dialysis and Transplantation
A pump (the blood pump) is nearly always needed to obtain a sufficiently high blood ßow rate. Just after the dialyser is an expanded portion of the venous line called the bubble trap. This is a safety device to collect any air that may leak into the circuit. Dialysate comes from the machine and passes through the dialyser in an opposite direction to that of the blood. The kidney machine has a number of dials and looks complicated. These dials 44 PRINCIPLES OF DIALYSIS Monitor dialS} of dialysu .
If a dialysis machine is set so that it removes too much fluid during a dialysis period, the patient' s blood pressure will fall below normal. The symptoms are unpleasant and include faintness, nausea and vomiting. This is a 'hypo'. It may be possible to avoid a 'hypo' by careful adjustment of the machine. If the patient has poor venous access the pressure in thc blood line from the dialyser becomes too high, too much fluid is removed by the artificial kidney and a 'hypo' occurs. A 'hypo' is easily treated by running in normal saline (see page 60).
It is of some interest that younger dialysis patients are likely to have nephritis, chronic pyelonephritis or hypertension. Symptons of Chronie Renal Failure There are no symptoms of chronic renal failure which are caused direcdy by thc kidney disease. It is quite common to meet young patients who have less than 10 per cent of their kidney function left but have no symptoms. In contrast, symptoms are likely to occur earlier in people aged 50-60 years. 6 miscellaneous The approximate frequency of different causes of chronic renal failure The following symptoms may occur in people with chronic renal failure but not all will occur in any one person.
A Patient’s Guide to Dialysis and Transplantation by Roger Gabriel (auth.)