By National Research Council, Policy and Global Affairs, Technology, and Economic Policy Board on Science, Committee on Comparative Innovation Policy: Best Practice for the 21st Century, Charles Wessner, Kenneth Flamm, Masayuki Kondo, Sadao Nagaoka
Spotting potential to innovate and commercialize new high-technology items is more and more a key for the commercial development within the atmosphere of tighter environmental and source constraints, governments worldwide have taken lively steps to reinforce their nationwide innovation platforms. those steps underscore the idea of those governments that the emerging charges and dangers linked to new in all likelihood high-payoff applied sciences, their spillover or externality-generating results and the transforming into worldwide pageant, require nationwide R&D courses to aid the recommendations by means of new and present high-technology businesses inside of their borders. The nationwide examine Council's Board on technology, expertise, and monetary coverage (STEP) has launched into a examine of chosen international innovation courses compared to significant U.S. courses. The "21st Century Innovation platforms for the us and Japan: classes from a Decade of switch" symposium reviewed govt courses and projects to help the improvement of small- and medium-sized agencies, government-university- collaboration and consortia, and the effect of the highbrow estate regime on innovation. This booklet brings jointly the papers awarded on the convention and gives a historic context of the problems mentioned on the symposium.
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Extra info for 21st Century Innovation Systems for Japan and the United States: Lessons from a Decade of Change: Report of a Symposium
Reform of University Research System ystem in Japan: Where Do They Stand? Ryuji Shimoda Tokyo Institute of Technology 1. 1 Researchers in Universities At the end of March 2005, Japanese universities had 291,000 researchers in all ﬁelds, including 190,000 in the natural sciences and engineering. Universities in Japan are classiﬁed into three categories: national universities founded by the central government, public universities founded by local governments, and private universities founded by private initiatives.
Program. This system was established in 1999 to help SMEs enhance their technologydevelopment capability and to support their creative business activities. Speciﬁcally, ministries in charge of R&D grants and nonproﬁt special corporations, such as the Small and Medium Enterprise Corporation, a nonproﬁt funding agency for SMEs, are to allocate a designated share of their R&D grant funding for SMEs. As Figure 6 shows, from 1999 to 2005, this amount has been increased three times, and actual appropriation of budget has also been rising very quickly.
With biotechnology accounting for more than half of the ﬁrms established in 2005, the industry’s hare is continuing to grow. 9 employees and 132 million yen in sales). These average ﬁgures include 16 IPO ﬁrms, so that there are many ﬁrms with very small scale of operation. 3. CONCLUSION In the late 1980s, when the Japanese economy was booming, technology policy started to emphasize the importance of science. There was a rather widely held view that the catch-up era was ﬁnally ending, that science was becoming even more important for innovation, and that Japan’s research system lacked the human resources, equipment, and management structure to thrive in this new environment.
21st Century Innovation Systems for Japan and the United States: Lessons from a Decade of Change: Report of a Symposium by National Research Council, Policy and Global Affairs, Technology, and Economic Policy Board on Science, Committee on Comparative Innovation Policy: Best Practice for the 21st Century, Charles Wessner, Kenneth Flamm, Masayuki Kondo, Sadao Nagaoka